Clothing not only outdoors

1st December 2017

and following entries /updates

Plus Ultra



13th December 2020

We almost got used to the wave of the innovative equipment entering the outdoor market for about the last decade. The demand it reflects grows with interest in activities, more diverse needs for refined materials and gear and with environmental considerations. The high-tech brains respond early and the industry-shifting powers locate new targets. But it took more time to get here.

The boom of synthetic textiles in the last century and the huge novelty factor that it brought with it slowed down understanding of natural materials initially and thus harvesting from this potential. The properties of the developing synthetics, fabrics and insulation, partly justified it, especially in light of sophistication of the natural materials at the time. Hydrophobicity, range of design configurations, weight, windproof and water-resistant abilities were real advantages of the synthetics to the user and for the marketing. Evolving materials science was moving further. With time and practice, drawbacks about the properties and behaviour were also surfacing and, in that sense, we became more critical of both material groups that benefited from advanced syntheses, processes and manufacturing. This accelerated visibly in the last decade. Where we had good possibilities ten years ago, we have noticeably better gear today across the price categories. And as bio-synthetics start to replace those based on petroleum, ethical, health and broader prosperity (even survival) prospects improve. Equally striking, and in its nature similar, development can be seen in footwear over this period.

The right gear helps to face the elements, be more efficient in what we do outdoors and that more naturally and in better comfort. It helps overcome the lack of hardiness that we lost (and helps get some back) for which our ancestors paid with radically different energy/metabolism flows, health and length of their life. This matters more, it does to more people, so the ordinary clothing becomes a part of the values driven by the spirit of interacting with the environment today.

Rigid Fabric Trousers

6th June; updated and added to 27th October 2020

In active outdoors, the right pair of trousers can be a little bit more difficult to find than with other pieces of clothing. Trousers cover legs, the most moving and most varied movements experiencing parts - and they are in contact with the surrounding environment. Still, for some reason, you won’t hear about them that often. There are many trousers on the market and many brands in different areas. There are parallels we can draw from sharing the experience with them.

I mentioned trousers whose fabric stretches and gives way to pressure, about their advantage and when that is useful, sometimes very useful to have. They don’t have all the same amount of a give and we chose them by what we need them for. Some stretch just a little but that can be enough, sometimes we need more stretch. Another type of trousers, sort of on the other side of the spectrum, employ dense weave/high thread count rigid fabric that is non-stretchy. These shine in environments that put particular demands on durability. High resistance to surface irritation, to damage by micro penetrations and cuts is handy when crossing dense vegetation environments that get lots of sunlight exposure such as wild meadows, steppes, bushland and savannas. Even shorted walks in these habitats will spare the elastane enriched, stretch-fabric trousers from inadequate wear and prolong their life for when they are more useful.

I want to mention trousers for women that won’t break the bank and punch way above their weight in that respect. Called Classic Kiwi II trousers they are an example of the type of trousers that use specially developed high-density fabric that is protective - from wetness, UV radiation, insect bites to mechanical exposure. They have excellent cut and high waistline. The composition is 35% cotton and 65% polyester but the tactile feel of the tough-wearing fabric is superb. The more streamlined design has the Craghoppers traditional pockets solutions. Although not a fan of this brand for my trousers I miss this with some other trousers where the small items swim around in large pockets or can be dropped when reaching for other stuff. In Craghoppers trousers, these are locked in place in added compartments of the main pockets. We both use these trousers for a couple of years, also this spring. Zlatka has two pairs. They are a joy to use. The men’s version is slightly baggy (which can be forgiven in case of their rugged winter version). I usually have a different gripe about them - too tight in some sections. The more relaxed fit from the crotch down means that despite the rigid fabric, the energy is well spent during longer endeavours. In more hilly terrain they would benefit from knee articulating seam.

Zlatka’s favourite trousers Kiwi Pro Winter Trousers are scoring even higher. The Pro label means these are stretch fabric design. (The summer women’s Pro version are good trousers.) She had them on recently in colder-than-average October; we can spend a long time in one place without moving much. They have a slightly lower waist but the stretchy fabric throughout and the cut prevent discomfort in that sense. The all synthetic trousers are so well made that the wearer hardly notices they are winter trousers – and remains as nimble as in the best summer trousers. The Pro trousers fabric stretches breadthwise as most of the fabric of this construction. The lightweight Rohan Trailblazers (permethrin) stretch lengthways – which is a little more effective for stretch. The Craghoppers summer version (NosiLife Pro Trousers ver. 1) is more protective and warmer, Zlatka was alternating both on our journey in India.

I have the best luck with Scandinavian made trousers. They tend to put function above all the other things that can meddle with the men’s designs which seems to work for me.


31st March 2020

Visible light is energy, a medical practitioner working with people who spent a prolonged time in the dark might tell you this. We don’t know much about the sensory ways the body detects and receives it. Individuals that got back their ability to see, after they opened their eyes to the light, can feel as if something physically hit them (with force). We are used to this electromagnetic radiation and specific nuances formed during our evolution. It’s not surprising that it is part of our sophisticatedly intertwined world, whether we pay attention to it or not.

More people are more at home because of the coronavirus. So where getting out was beneficial or important to our health, it is now critical to spend the minimum time we’ve got outdoors. Most of us have some space where we can go and stretch our bodies. No place or things around us are ‘ordinary’ or not worth observing and giving weight. If we have a piece of greenery around, we can consider ourselves lucky. So even if we haven’t done this before, we can consider getting a decent pair of running shoes. If we can carry a load (like shopping), we can get a suitable bag and carry it home. Those distances we spend on a bus are often surprisingly short and manageable by walking. Our spine will thank us later. It actually loves load caring and dragging things. And it hates leaning over the desks and staring into monitors. Limiting the time one spends with the media to a bare minimum will still give us more information than we can digest (and are built for).

Others will want to add home exercising. A couple of simple weights and fifteen minutes using them in brisk pace does a miracle. Our limbs should be useful, not useless, but it’s the overall effect that we will recognise first. It is surprisingly positive. On the other hand, if we don’t do this minimal physical hygiene bit, we have no one to blame later, not even the coronavirus. Doing any of the silly manual things like cooking and many others, tiding up forgotten corners of the house or flat, reviewing our gear from shoes, kitchen, appliances to clothing does us good as well. The normal existence does us good.

For the infection, the evidence and testing point to it not being spread as aerosol (*floating suspended in the air type of spread). There is hope it can have seasonal or semi-seasonal character, too, and that some climates won’t agree with it as well as the temperate climates do. Hotter and drier or reversely humid climates can make worse conditions for its life. As it is the risk of the respiratory distress syndrome due to the immune system tendency not switching smoothly between its defensive responses with growing age, it is basically technical problem of having enough ventilators that prevents saving more lives (possible medicine support taking more time to develop). That is something that, despite all the difficulties, we have in our hands. Routine testing of people likely to have gained immunity (or broader) is another part in our hands; this to shorten the social and economic upset.

8th April

That is worse still with the male patients whose immune system initial response (cytokines) seems more robust in emerging studies for this case, thus delaying targeting the virus with specialised antibodies produced by B and T cells, i.e. the real defence against the virus.

16th April

Limiting the spread (to vulnerable)

We consider the chances of catching the coronavirus close to those of catching the flu. By flu is meant seasonal influenza, not a cold and other bacterial or viral respiratory infection. Some hints could point to SARS-CoV-2 higher rate transmission due to instances like spread by the infected but asymptomatic individuals. But these didn’t prove a significant factor as yet.

By far, the highest risk of the spread, besides maybe specific gatherings (pubs or shared accommodations), comes from where the infection is active. The methodological approach here is the number one factor that limits the spread. It’s therefore important to influence a broad spectrum of the population in taking these systematic, unnatural measures that limit the spread of the infection including wearing the masks when caring for an ill relative or changing shoes before entering the room in which the home patient is staying.


We have been wearing masks (Breathe Healthy) in public transport and when shopping in the supermarket. It’s much more for peace of mind (e.g. drowsing on the train) than for serious protection, we don’t need to pay attention to our surrounding that much and can focus on our things. Paradoxically, one feels more relaxed (in London). In the supermarket, one of us pushes the trolley wearing gloves and the other shifts the stuff. The handles are probably sanitised relatively often but this seems the most likely place for possible transmission. When you enter public transport the chances are, they are not busy. The masks will limit the exposure from theoretical sneezing/coughing that could occur moments ago before you entered. The protection they offer would become more real-world when the restrictions are eased and more people will be using the transport. That said, people who can work from home should be encouraged to do so for longer. The same for social distancing. Sensible behaviour (and individual discipline) will be required, particularly when more normal conditions return. Its effectiveness will vary depending on the scenario, but the measures in the supermarkets are excellent. Running these facilities smoothly enables having control over many things that limit the transmission.

GOTS, Bluesign and Nordic Swan

26th March 2020

Browsing the high-end brands’ websites for wool clothing, you can come across pages about the environment, sustainability and ethics. These terms can be repeated tens of times within a single page, accompanied with attachments, stories, pictures of pristine, virgin, pure... nature and dreamy meadows with little lamb and smiling babies. The elaborate designs aim for high esthetical and emotional impact. They got better for the last year or two. Independent analysis of the claims is a different matter altogether, as are the bare facts. Underneath this, and marked lack of a clear, sound information, lie chlorine treatment and synthetic resin that covers every individual fibre of the thread the clothing is made of. You can draw your conclusion once you know this, but this is meant to stay hidden from even curious and responsible user, so that is one hint.

These high-end products are often excellent as far as the garment goes, we own a couple of them, and they are well-used and tried (three brands at least), and also compared. The point is to make them for less cost, with a higher mark-up, have more latitude with pricing, and sell more.

The bottom line remains. Confusing labels such as Ecotex 100 aren’t even considering production criteria. Unless the clothing or label are GOTS, Bluesign or Nordic Swan, there are the mass production (cheap) treatments, finishes or/and dyes involved and part of the garment composition no matter what pictures we are seeing. The certified products aren’t even always more expensive than those pretty websites ones and so the somewhat painful process of filtering them out can pay off twice.

Latex (rubber)

14th March 2020

Is used for an added stretch in form of rubber core threads in a wide range of clothing. It weighs slightly less than Nylon, more than elastane, and its thermal conductivity is lower than that of polyester (closer to the wool than other common synthetics). As a mix-in material of marginal use, it blends easily in terms of fabric properties and has hardly a negative impact on usability. It is more demanding technologically than the widespread alternatives. It’s a good insulator in the cold, in scorching heat environments, when needed, one has the option to look for airier materials and garments or skip the elastic fabrics.


1. 2. Quilted Layers - Jackets

26th January, *16th February 2020

Staying protected

for longer

I will return to the vests that got mentioned the last time. I came across a vest that had fit we know from sports clothing, the very thin ones used by rock and cave climbers. But this vest was with synthetic insulation of medium weight. This caught our attention. Someone started making insulating vests the way we do them in our wool versions for decades. The width below the chest is gradually reduced, so the male that wears it doesn’t feel like a cocoon and is capable of moving nimbly. This hasn’t been a problem in women lines as it is a part of the looks. The vest even promised an improved synthetic fill that was made, together with the shell, of recycled polyester and nylon, respectively (bluesign certified).

The vest has this athletic fit normally unusual among the vests, or gilets if you prefer. It then can sit lower (it is longer) and protect the lower part of the body very well. It also is wider in shoulders. It’s a pity that we can’t see cuts like this more often. Though I still think Haglofs (the vest bought at webtogs) got here by focusing on a snug fit first rather than on the cut itself. Fortunately I, and the purpose I got it for, fit their sizing just right. So far the shapes have run in universal fashion of narrow shoulders and a cocoon-like torso. This shape doesn’t help with the mobility in terrain which is the point of the vest; shielding against the heat loss in critical areas without compromising one’s movement. Especially, if the vest is not worn on a naked body but on one or more layers (this particular Haglofs Essens Mimic vest is designed for thin layering). The higher volume of air exchange also cools the body down, which isn’t why the vest is on. The vest is the first piece of clothing human ever wore, besides something wrapped around the waist. A leather strap tied around the waist took care of the fit. And while the reduction towards the waist won’t suit everyone every time, the fitted cuts are great for many uses and body shapes where the straight cut is not. So one would expect to find some from the manufacturers focused on this type of clothing. The exposed shoulders are a substantial part of the torso so these centimetres matter as well. The airtight fit closer to one’s neck than to the shoulder looks cosy but I always thought more practical thinking wouldn’t be amiss. I guess future differentiation will take care of this, and that’s what this ‘new’ vest is. The variety of these garments grows. We can notice in other types of clothing where there is more focus, like in jackets, in the last 10 years. That is an advantage for the user and the seller alike - in a tight competition. The downside is that as marketing thickens, things tend to get confusing.


The outdoors clothing is filled with more technology, attention and is getting more differentiated. It can make things look unnecessarily confusing. The synthetic materials got closer to natural materials in some aspects and the natural materials are becoming a greater part of the technical clothing. But the basics remain unchanged. We just distinguish in the variety more sharply because the lines among their properties and uses are more delineated. This is what we personally always look at, it hasn't changed much:


There’s always going to be a degree of deception present on the market. The garment doesn’t have to be expensive. We use expensive pieces of clothing alongside inexpensive ones. The technologies have trickled down to budget options, so if the garment does what it needs to be doing for us, it is all that we need to buy. These manufacturers can make a product that is difficult to find elsewhere even when the price is no object so we shouldn’t discard them. They may, or may not be behind in sustainability, you may or may not consider, and the durability may, or may not be a factor. One needs to consider this within the particular scenario (the intended use, specific item, etc.). Some materials can’t be had for a low cost. When we need these, we buy them instead of the options that don’t feature them. We sit down and think what we need not what we are told would be nice to have and we certainly might possibly need (most certainly not). It saves us money for things we will need next. When some features are real-world practical and useful to us, often combined with low-weight/bulk requirement in this field, we look for them and get them (not for the price tag which can be deceiving both ways). The false economy can also put pressure on your wallet and needles wasting. The reality is all things will have to have their real value reflected in the price we pay for them (with money or otherwise), and that value will have to reflect values we respect and hold dear.


We consider down when we need maximum warmth in a dry environment. At -10C the frost is dry and comfortable, and the zero is reassuringly far. At this point and below, people typically appreciate the best weight to warmth ratios. When not, the jacket as such is put aside for when it’s needed, and a more breathable garment is used. The chances are that you are moving and don’t face winds. Water-resistant/waterproof outer shell improves down jacket loft capacity in higher humidity.

Water-resistant down:

We consider whenever we need the down performance to be more versatile. It has the best weight to warmth ratio everywhere except the prolonged dump conditions (at the temperatures of 0 to 5C and up). It copes with the humidity for some time, especially if alternated with drier periods (like spending nights in dry). We stay away from nasty treatments of down (PFC), what harms nature harms us and our kids. The water-resistant outer shell will further improve the down jacket loft capacity in changing humidity. Keeping in mind that when we choose an overkill product for insulation or features for the particular use, we end up with a less ideal piece of clothing and carry more weight.

Synthetic fill:

If the conditions are humid most of the time or continuously, and staying warm is a problem (even using down), we look for synthetic insulation or wool because the advantage of the down fill is diminishing. The synthetic insulation can now be very compact, packable, lightweight and also warm for most scenarios. It maintains these properties in a humid environment. We can find quickly what are the top sorts at a given time. They are used for clothing for some time, further worked on and used more widely. The practice confirms the marketing claims, or not, and the relevant information is accessible more easily than ever through the good of the Internet.

Thickness and stitching:

The manufactures combine tuned sets of properties/garments/prices their own way, but they have to all come to something similar in this field (style, which has undeniable place in other spectrums of clothing, is not the most prominent feature here). We pick the thickness we need for protection out of the range of a given make. We can also compare the details that are important with other(s) so we can make a good choice. We tend to look for less stitching with bulkier calibre as these two features go hand in hand in increasing the insulation power. For lighter weights, we choose the patterns that suit other factors or purposes (shape of the baffles, sustainability, cut, materials, features, colour, price). If we need to get an absolute maximum out of a lighter weight thinner piece of clothing, mostly for extreme endeavours, we apply a minimum stitching approach to the choice as well.


We just got Dilling Outdoor Jackets that use merino wool as insulation. The recent conditions, Dennis and especially Ciara storm provided also an opportunity to see what they are like in rough conditions at gale winds close to zero at times. The fill developed for this jacket (82% merino and 18% bio-polyester) felt similar to down fill which was a surprise. You could easily mistake the jacket for a down one. We also noticed instantly how warm the jackets were, that without paying particular attention to this. It is likely that it will also be getting comparatively warmer relative to the rising humidity. See in examples.


I will pick a gear that demonstrates performance, good materials as well as careful designs. They are right out of our wardrobe. The brands established in a particular area will vary, the product lines and clothing on the offer themselves less so.

Triton jacket made by Mountain Equipment Zlatka is using. It’s a down jacket, and I won’t be tiring with specifications, which may not be up to date with the refresh version today. Even though this down is untreated (not water-resistant) Zlatka was using it in the Andes over 4000 m for our everyday routine: get up and head under the starry sky or in the rain/sleet right from the beginning above the paramo tops. We spend the whole days out but we had a cosy cabin at disposal to spend the night in, with the heating. So we were returning to a dry and warm room. If it wasn’t raining, it was freezing so the temperature was always at its worst (out of the relatively mild range), around zero, combined with the highest humidity and fresh winds. Sometimes very fresh. Seeing the hummingbirds in this setting makes you double-check with your other half that the conditions or the altitude haven’t mixed with your mind or eyesight, especially if it landed two meters away as if out of curiosity. The jacket uses a decent 700 fill and it is stitched quite a lot. But those stitches are not facing the outside as is usual. They are covered with a robust layer of waterproof Pertex (two layers exactly) that spreads the heat evenly and gives the stitching protection – a microlayer on the top of it. The down fill is then not only relatively warm but also slow at getting damp. The whole day certainly is not enough as long as you wear it and return to a drier place for the night. The practical features of the jacket are also useful. Someone reckoned people will be spending a long time in it with conditions changing. This shows a clever design that results in a warm jacket that is not heavy and protects a vital part of your body when you need it. Zlatka was using it similar occasions (e.g. in Nepal) including the fickle UK weather in winter when the temperature dips and the winds pick up the speed.

Fitzroy jacket  This jacket got also used in the Andes as part of my kit. (I think that’s all we got from ME). It uses synthetic insulation. It is a good example of less stitching. It hasn’t got any. In other words, it is as warm as it can be for the fill so it has the highest efficiency for its gauge. Fitzroy is a slightly lower calibre jacket than Triton. It adds useful insulation and overall protection (the latter is basically on par with Triton considering). Its cut is very deliberately executed so it can be put over other clothing yet minimise the bulk. It can also be used with just a single thermal shirt on without the feeling you swim in it. It’s also good when you need to windproof your sweater with something warmer than just a shell. The torso is relatively narrow shape while the width of the upper arm part of the sleeve is slightly more generous. The forearms are tapered and the cuffs adjustable. The result is maintained mobility (I had two woollen thermals and Rab Microlight jacket under it), versatile use and protection like the one Triton jacket gives you. In comparison, it trades a bit of warmth for being a very compact synthetic jacket for the insulation power it has. The practical features are a matter of course and good materials also ensure durability. The highlight of Triton mentioned above is clever stacking of the two layers (the insulating and protective one) whereas Fitzroy combines the non-stitch insulation with a precise, effective cut that manages to fit a wide range of use.

Zlatka has also been using Mountain Hardwear Ghost Whisperer Jacket (also used on the Nepal trek). This exotic jacket is basically an ultra-compact insulated windproof with 750 water-resistant down fill (I think it now sports 800 FP). It’s warm so it can be layered. You don’t know you carry it. Aimed at more sports use it can be forgiven the futuristic style colours.

On the other hand, she loves her £35 thinner mid-weight untreated down vest Trek 100 from Decathlon (or Regatta products). The stated 800 FP feels like in the range when compared to my 800 FP vest, and it gives that kind of warmth for the thickness of this mid-weight vest. It has the right features, an excellent cut, a nice matte black and a convincing guarantee about the source of the down.

*13th May 2020  She got her second MH Ghost Whisperer jacket like the one she was using got battered with use. The fill power is now 800 and the size is exactly the same as her previous version, which is to be expected with this sort of the kit. There are minor but nice enhancements and the colour schemes are now original rather than futuristic.

*Updated after a year of use:    25th November 2020

Dilling Outdoor Jacket – merino fill. I wrote earlier it stood up as we would have expected in windy, humid weather during two winter storms. One can’t say much about new gear because it is often perceived differently after a while and can be easily underappreciated or the other way round. We have now been using these jackets for long enough, and they deserve an edit.

Pleasant to touch matt feel polyester shell and lining (airier, less glossy) is what probably contributes to the warmth of this lightweight jacket. The jersey inserts with thumbholes securing the sleeves are very well implemented. Hand pockets have zips behind the low-profile hems, which is not apparent in the on-line description. It packs into the same stuff sack as Rab Microlight jacket (my version is 750 FP). It will take more room if the packing needs are extreme. The Rab down jacket is optimised for transport compactness and is also universal cut that can take more bulk and looser layers. The Dilling jacket weighs some 27% more, but the substance seems to translate positively as it also feels a touch warmer in most uses. In the sparkling frost, the down is always given the preference for both the insulating power and compactness.

The fit is snugger. I couldn’t see many jackets like this a year ago but I wasn’t looking hard. I found later their number has increased. That said the cut of this jacket is made with great care. The over a century-old company making clothing worn close to the body certainly knows about both, and the outcome is refreshing. This jacket fits snug, providing outstanding mobility with no constriction or limit to movement in any way. It can take close-fitting layers, that in woollen skins includes heavy weights. This makes it suitable for combining with an outer jacket when the sweater or fleece isn’t practical (walking through a woodland, thorny, prickly vegetation, windy or rapid change conditions). It’s a pleasant-to-wear jacket, and for the wool filling part, it does feel different to the synthetics. Not that I would say Primaloft and similarly performing insulations are unpleasant in any way. As also mentioned previously, less stitching, insulation without breaks and the separate lining improve the efficiency. The fill is consisting of 18 % bio-polyester (PLA) fibre and wool (82% wool). Interestingly, the PLA has similar thermal conductivity to wool fibres. Typical values for polyester/PET are 3-5x higher than the wool fibre (there seems to be more errors/typos for polyester on-line than for other materials, including Nylon). Plus, there is the wool’s ability to insulate in high humidity – and it feels warmer than anything else when wet or soaked. It’s worth to mention that the fill of the low-profile baffles is less prone to collapsing and becoming compacted (so there is a bright side) and its volume holds well. The jackets have just one wash behind them, so with that in mind, but have become our favourites.

(We have no affiliation with any clothing/gear company.)


or a tough frost, it is a very relative figure to point out meaningfully, it depends on many circumstances. Conditions around zero are the ones that are most likely to be underestimated but potent of killing or causing severe hypothermia if one is caught unprepared, remote or in an accident. I was moving at speed in -25C when it takes some effort to melt all the ice built in you beard once in a warm place. I was also spending whole winter days at this temperature and not moving much, just getting a few minutes of relief after an hour or so. The body is hugely adaptable but it needs time to adapt, -10C then feels like a thaw. This is part of those ’circumstances’ as well. The best general guide is, looking at the circumstances and ask, am I going to be cold?; without overthinking.

Large 20 x 20


Itchy wool?

24th January 2020

Wool can be itchy on the skin. I mentioned before that the body response (our brain for the most part) to the itchy feel along with swelling of the fibre in resin-coated wool can completely reverse how it feels next to the skin.

We have just come across itchy socks. They are knit of pure wool, not merino wool, of winter weight. The yarn, as far as we can tell, seems slightly stiffer. Perhaps it was selected for the purpose. They come from Italy though were bought in the UK. These are home socks, they wouldn’t do well on hikes. They were pretty itchy when we put them on after they dried out. So this was an interesting observation and we were curious about what this is going to be like. We are used to wearing the wool of all kinds and we sort of forgot the feeling. Well, it at least makes you think, “we are used to wearing the wool”. And now quite some itch coming from these socks. I am saying this so that it’s clear that there may be some body-used-to-wool response already in this. On the other hand, it is clear that we don’t have this itchy wool in our garments because this wouldn’t stand out as abnormal. And we certainly wear only very pleasant wool next to the skin in thermals and underwear. After about a half an hour of normal use (forgot about them) the itch went away. Ha. Where is the itching?

First, there was still a slight residual feeling of that kind but the change was abrupt – in a half an hour. The fibres settled as they got arranged by the movement of the foot and flattened. Second, the body probably was making some adjustments as our experience tells us plus allowing for the fact the wool as such isn’t foreign to our skin. Immunisation effect of a sort? Let’s say. Third, the swelling caused by saturation of the fibres that come in contact with the body works with non-treated wool as well to some extent. The fibre is filled with a small amount of moisture carried by the vapour escaping with the body heat. This micro amount of moisture causes the fibre to change its surface structure, it micro swells. This is what wool does naturally if it becomes undersaturated (bone dry) and takes some moisture back. So apart from the sensory adjustment that we think must exist, the wool fibre changed in those two aspects since we put them on our feet. That seems to be a plausible explanation of the change that occurred both quickly and noticeably. At first, there was a hint of a residual itching-like feel that started to feel agreeable on the skin. It then turned into the familiar sensation when you have wool on or close your body. Maybe a bit like discovering good coffee without sugar - somehow it’s hard to go back. And this was itchy wool, nothing like we know in our use.

The socks as such are a treat! We just pulled a few rubber threads out from the hems. They always tend to overdo this. Otherwise, buying the wool socks, it’s good to remember that given the purpose they tend to felt mechanically a little, and can also get some shrinkage with washing. So selecting one size group/size up can be a way to go.

Elastane (Spandex, Lycra)

2nd July 2019

Looking at the function in outdoors, another synthetic with outstanding properties (stretch) that it lends to the specialist garments is elastane.

It is used in a range of close-fitting performance clothing that reduces bulk, flapping, improves aerodynamics and extends layering.

When it comes to trousers, more compact, closer-fitting though sophisticated cuts are ideal for hiking with frequent or prolonged climbs in changeable or steep terrains.

Our first lightweight but very durable hiking trousers that had elastane in the fabric were Keela trousers that we bought well a decade ago in two pairs for each. The stretch reduces or removes friction and movement restriction in places of resistance such as in knees and around thighs. Restrictive pressures there can hinder a considerable amount of free movement. Even relatively small but constant pull of often sweaty trousers against the action is lost energy that could be used elsewhere. Something will depend on the cut details (and articulated knees), but the stretch is still the ultimate aid for walking without energy leaking where it matters or when time is precious (no rest in sight).

Manufacturers tend to overdo the close-fittingness of these trousers just a bit (or a lot) to emphasise the purpose (elastane) and expand the range of products they sell and even accommodate looks and style. As a result, the number of ideal trousers with good air circulation and truly minimal friction ratio are not easy to find even among good traditional brands as they are experimenting with fashion effect, sales, where they can push the practicality and artificial differentiation. We agreed recently with enthusiasts and people going out for trekking that finding the right balance and functional cut with stretch is not easy unless the focus is a sport or rock climbing. The Rohan Trailblazers (permethrin fabric only) *and Haglofs Mid Flex black trousers (Sportshoes subscr.) can be mentioned as a good example of the type of trousers that have all the advantages of the stretch and compact yet functional cut. The Elastane shouldn't be washed above 30 C.

Alpaca and goats fibre air content (mohair, cashmere)

24th March 2019   

     Although it is known that the fibre of alpaca fleece has technically higher insulation power than the wool (largely due to its higher air content), a lot depends on following structures of building blocks that form the garment; how the yarn was spun, how the strand was plied and how the fabric or knit was made. These structure-forming steps can lead to markedly different results, different actual air contents and so the resulting insulation.

Therefore, looking at this fibre in isolation is only part of the story. The finer sheep’s wool, not to mention the lambs and merino wool, has a natural tendency to build air-trapping structures during the process, so this is a property that needs to be factored in. The air content of the fibre is just one of the building blocks of the fabric, albeit an important one. Because the sheep’s wool in particular has this tendency, more than the lustre, somewhat sleeker (hair-like) wools from alpaca and goats, the context of the steps that make the garment is equally essential.

That said, the alpaca will offer you a distinct feel, improved properties and advantages in several regards over the sheep’s wool. As such, together with the other wools, it represents an excellent option. My old alpaca sweater vest was among my all-time favourites. The availability of the garments and the yarn is much better these days. When comparing heavy-weight socks knit of the alpaca to the socks knit of the wool (with the same or very similar technique on the common production steps), we found the alpaca slightly warmer (the wool fabric still captured slightly more air). If there were more changes to the processes, the result would vary more as well. So the alpaca (and the goats) gets a head start with a better fibre and more air but the wool, particularly the fluffier sorts, like to make up for this during the spinning and other processes that follow so that the advantage is lessened or can be even lost. When it comes to this kind of considerations then, a careful look at how the garment was made and how much air it tends to hold will tell more about its insulation power than judging by the kind of the fibre alone.

*Finally, blends of alpaca fleece yarn and wool should be considered. In many cases, the resulting fabrics have better form stability and the form overall than the garment made of the alpaca alone.

                                      A lighter weight, lightly dyed alpaca/mohair (50/50) blend spun for a looser, airy yarn. The simple machine knit is also looser, of a single 280 m/100 g strand; the fleece is mere 280 g (Zlatka’s size) but very insulating. It’s a result of a superior fibre and fluffy fabric that traps plenty of air for its weight.

A heavier medium weight, tight knit, snug-fit sweater, hand knitted with a drier (less oil content) wool and merino strands combined. These fabrics have a high air content capacity. Also details like the knit stitches running lengthwise here create deep channels on the wrong side, filled with stable air. *We came across this wool yarn (170m/100 g) more by chance but it turned out to be of excellent quality. Elastic, very firm, a kind that is retaining its form and definition. It is particularly pleasant against the skin, easily matching the merino (640/100 g) with which it is combined. The combined strands give denser fabrics than a single strand of equivalent thickness. This can be taken into account when using hand knitting.

Bulky weight alpaca socks made of double-strand hand knit. We use a lighter weight single strand ones as well (undyed). Lana Bambini (UK) sells 65 % wool, 35% alpaca socks made of natural yarn in all sizes (you may want to felt them, then going one size group up is a general rule).

Perilla, The Wool Company (Cornwall) and Soul Destiny sell hiking/outdoors socks with addition of nylon (70 % mohair and 75% alpaca socks). They are not overly elastic, a problem of most of the woollen hiking socks, so they are a better balance between the blood circulation and secure fit in the boot/shoe. They tested very well so far; time will tell about the durability. Perilla also offers undyed selection of natural alpaca shades.


1.1. Quilted Layers and Shells

19th December 2018, 3rd February 2020

           Polyester and polyamide (or nylon) are base materials for a range of specialist clothing that fight rain and wind very effectively. Jackets and vests fall into this group, and they add more warmth to their water-wind resistant/proof properties. The gear combines lightness of the fabrics with lightweight insulation in layers and is extremely efficient as body warmer and elements-shielding protection. At the same time, it can be extremely compact and compressible. These properties culminate in high-end equipment. The combination makes the quilted technical clothing exceptional whether for possible comfort/practical reasons or for getting the needed effect in harsh conditions outdoor and in sports. I use specialist gear made of both technical and natural materials. I have four vests, just for one example, two of which are woollen and two quilted down vests. I use these types for decades, and the materials and availability regarding both have improved markedly during that time. (Just days ago I noticed organic cotton 70/yak 30 wool blend shirt in a mainstream manufacturer range/shop from which I have bought flannel shirts recently.) The thinner vest of each type can also be easily layered. I tend to use the woollen one (knit) on or under my woollen sweater and the technical one universally. The thicker ones are worn as an outer layer more often. The technical thicker sweater-vest is made of fine recycled ripstop polyester and down (800-fill). Alongside the polyester, the company uses ripstop polyamide (nylon) for shells. This make (Patagonia) is also using reclaimed down in their products (and their vests) and recycled materials for synthetic fill. These vests and jackets fit a handy pouch. The other one, a thin vest, can fit my palm in seconds (a pocket or a small pouch) yet it gives the body instant boost for warmth and acts as a windshield. These designs can be extremely compact/lightweight, so they make possible having these high-performance technical pieces always close at hand.

The woollen clothing has, of course, its very own set of properties that make it stand out. Design, pattern of the knit (e.g. air trapping) and the inherently substantial nature of the material with tendency to stability determine and tune the function of these garments. This outer vest that has just replaced one of our old ones is often worn on mid-layer sweatshirt or flannel; a heavier weight undyed yarn (two strands combined for density) is hand-knitted and designed to be mildly felted.

The mid-weight knit shown in the second picture on the right is a machine-knit blend of bloomy mohair/alpaca yarns and on the left is a denser knit of merino on a different machine, both two-strand simple knit (one year in use). The pictures are shot under different lighting.

Combining windproof shells with warm layers such as sweater or fleece is another way to “quilt” the windproofs as the insulation layer is evenly spread around the body.

It’s a different configuration of the same. We can separate both distinctly different layers, the windproof on its own weights little and packs to almost nothing. At the same time, we can improve breathability rapidly by boosting air circulation when switching the windproof shell on (warmth stability) and off (maximum air/vapour flow).

Well-chosen knit garments (thickness) on their own are exceptionally well suited for physical activities where the structure of the fabric imitates and acts as a fur on mammals. They create a warm aura around the body while being particularly flexible and effective at getting rid of excess heat and moisture. This in normal to cold conditions. Another potential advantage is having the possibility of choosing the exact material or the garment that we want as the insulation and possibly a wider range of use of such a kit. Adding a windproof membrane extends that range to maximum.

Sweatshirts, on the other hand, made of more tightly woven or knit fabric than knits of sweater act more like skins, particularly so if the fit is snug. They are less versatile as they contain less air that you can lock or open to exchange with or without a windproof shell. They, however, are different in that they are less bulky for the same weight and resist wind better on their own (380 g/m2). Terry pile fabric on the underside is in that sense between the knit and the dense, fine thread fabric.

Best breathability of the windproof/waterproof jackets is served by Velcro tabs (or better still, metal press studs) placed along the flap and the zip. When you don’t need the zips done, they can hold the jacket in the right shape, protect you but also allow for the sufficient exchange of air - it can breathe on a fast-paced hike. More air permeable membranes are always a plus as they dry out quicker and add that tiny bit of breathability, but this option of fastening through which the air can freely pass as the body moves can make a big difference for a jacket like this. Well-implemented hidden ventilating panels serve the same purpose. Zip openings under the arms or protected panels on the sides of the chest (with zippers) on our venerable Keela ad Musto jackets had also made them that much more useful and flexible.

Looser fit raincoats with a built-in compartment for rucksack called poncho offer generally better ventilation than the jackets. They also cover the legs better. The access to the rucksack is not restricted more than with the separate rain cover (if anything it can simplify things in terrain). The water-resistance of the material can be comparatively lower as the straps aren’t in contact with it so the pressure and rubbing are not causing problems. Its main disadvantage is additional bulk but for the right situation, it is the best solution (walking long distance in the rain with a load or when a bit more volume/weight is no problem). We use Ferrino Trekker coats for years, there probably are better options but it still delivers when the situation calls for it.

- - 

31st January 2019

Similar to windproof/waterproof shell jackets, where synthetics like nylon and polyester excel, we benefit from these materials when it comes to trousers as well. As we wear much less insulation on the lower part of the body, the efforts are made to get other things instead, such as wind-resistance, low weight and ability to dry out. This is where the trousers need to perform and where these fabrics are superb.

When we do need a bit of insulation and use winter trousers, the technical compositions will still score better for the weight-to-insulation ratio (though good moleskins aren’t far away) and crucially, they dry out much faster which is a big advantage in humid conditions. These fabrics can also be made to resist water easier. I found polyester blends with 1/3 of cotton very good materials, besides the trusted nylon.

Fully waterproof shell trousers are jacket version for legs. Although it may come a little odd to some, we are big proponents of using lightweight umbrellas outdoors and that for sheer practicality of the small thing. It’s compact, effective and we can get rid of it in an instant (and are useful for photography). But there are times where the umbrellas don’t work.

If it’s raining heavily, for a prolonged period, high winds or tricky terrain come to this, and we need to walk far, we replace the rain-resistant gear and/or umbrellas with the waterproofs. Apart from the regular jacket, we use long coats that are formed to swallow rucksacks on our backs, too. When these conditions last long enough, there comes a need to protect your legs because even if the soaked trousers weren't much of a problem, the flooded boots often are, as these are much more difficult to dry out on longer treks. In this case, and at that point, the water will get there by sucking it from the heavy ends of the drenched trousers and legs. It can surprise how quickly your feet are in pools of water. (Possible gaiters will slow the process only a little, if in use).

That can have implications for your feet and the ability to carry on walking regularly and for long hours (while the trousers can continue to dry out when put on the next day).

It's when the waterproof pants are useful. Only they will keep you dry, and later warm, under these conditions. Made of the same materials the waterproof jacket is made of they can double as a perfect windproof or added insulation layer especially in the cold, when you hung around one place without moving much, getting through wet vegetation etc. We use them decades this way and boy, is this useful few hundred grams in some handy stuff sack. By far the best are shells that you can put on without messing with your muddy boots, let alone in the middle of a downpour. These can be put on/taken off just as you are by doing/undoing zips that run along the full length of the legs.


Having added to the wool section several times I have rewritten it.

4th June 2019

      We are using a great range of materials for outdoor clothing today. Knowing their basic properties, weak and strong points, helps us to choose the right kind of materials or blends for outdoor activities or in sports and also for normal uses. Below is a summary of the most used materials and their properties relative to these requirements.


The wool breathes very well and it’s warm dry or wet.

Transports sweat well by wicking. It doesn’t hold the moisture trapped it in the fibre although it absorbs some and gets therefore heavier when wet.

Lighter than cotton when wet.

Moderately warm to warm dry or wet (in the cold) the wool is first of all insulating. Wools have temperature regulating property so they don’t cause overheating and can be used over a great range of temperatures. How warm the fabric depends on its type and its construction. The wool is known for building highly effective insulating structures and excellent air/vapour transport. Modern technology tight weave fabrics excel at skin temperature control, breathability and moisture-wicking. They are good as a base (e.g. merino wool 160-200 g/m²) and mid-layer (200 - 400 g/m²). Garments of loftier constructions are good as mid and outer layers. Icelandic wool (Lopi type) is excellent as outerwear as are garments made of undyed, deliberately worked yarns (non-industrial processes).

Wools of fine fibres are neutral or soft next to skin with unequalled feel. For the first-layer garments, a treated fibre is preferred because the underclothing is washed more frequently. The treatment won’t harm any gauge, although the thicker pieces don’t need it and retain their supreme qualities better without the treatments (sweaters). The wool feels and is different from the plant fibre based fabric as it becomes part of the skin layer rather than acting as a cover. It can take some getting used to it and is addictive to wear. The fibre responding to the environmental effects from both the inside (body vapour, sweat) and the outside (humidity, temperature) acts as a regulator. The inner part of the fibre fills with moisture but only to the desired point and then is releasing any excess. It makes the fabrics (initially a fleece of an animal) more substantial to cope with worsened weather (wind) while maintaining essential warming properties. Concentrated fine or special wools like cashmere, mohair, yak and alpaca are among the warmest, very soft and are great for warmer thin or thick layers. Some wools give yarns that are pleasant to touch and against the skin but are also durable and water-resistant to some degree. Small producers also sell both the undyed yarn and garments made of them. Other coarser wools are used for unique qualities clothes when worn as outerwear. The woollen clothes are tough, durable and long-lasting, much more so than e.g. clothing made of cotton.

Two types of treatments

The wool worked by enzyme-based processes (and other non-polymer or natural polymer treatments) can be regularly machine-washed with minimum care, resists pilling and is particularly pleasant directly on the skin. A number of technologies and products have entered or are entering the industry of the wool treatment that prevent shrinking. They remove or limit the tendency of natural adherence of the wool fibres on the surface mostly by using methods based on Plasma (e.g. Naturetexx) or Enzyme treatments and match the results of Chlorine-Hercosett process or are sufficient (Enzyme) for wool specific washing programs. Further progress for new polymers that solve the problematic affinity to the cuticle of the fibre is being made, including the biopolymers for use in combined and new specific applications (e.g. EXP). These methods are less invasive and they retain the character, quality and natural properties including antibacterial/odour control performance of the wool markedly better than the old methods. They also reduce the impact on the environment and comply with GOTS, Nordic Swan and Bluesign (also Oeko-Tex 1000, i.e. not just Oeko-Tex 100) and become part of a marketing fit for the 21st century.

Conventional Chlorine-Hercosett-process: The scales of the fibres are smoothened by etching (chlorine) to various degrees depending on the exact process and its intensity and then in the vast majority of cases coated with the polymer known as Hercosett 125 (in varying degree again). It is used for the majority of the yarn in the industry and consequently for most of the clothing that customers buy in shops. The resin-coated wool is resistant to mistreatment during the washing. It is an old process typical for 20th-century industries and their approaches aimed at production with no other considerations (and customer manipulation). The seller seldom informs about the treatment other than stating simplified care of the garment.

The labels can be more informative (though seldom explicit) and touching the material reveals there is something wrong with the wool (sometimes it is accompanied with chemical smell - different to the typical smell of wool). The material feels different, too, it has a synthetic, glossy feel to it. As the fibre is covered with a synthetic, the actual composition is changed, the added synthetic doesn’t have the properties of the wool. Along with the specific handle, the wool’s exceptional repellence to dirt and bacteria is lessened. More robust, outer layer garments also lose the wool’s natural bloom that gives the garments better warmth to weight ratio. Although the changes can be considered as aspects of feel, they have practical implications in more extreme use in sports and outdoors. The lighter weight gauges micro-bloom can also be noticeably affected depending on the strength of the treatment.

Natural wool products today are easy to wash without compromising their qualities if you stick to standard practice or if you are using suitable washing programs (hand wash or woollens). Petry-Lanazym process and some other methods that do not require coating/use of highly reactive chemicals fall to normal (real) wool category. As the natural wool is resistant to dirt, it doesn’t need frequent washing. If it does, the handwashing is easy for the wool has low affinity to dirt, and it’s an extremely poor substrate for bacteria to thrive on it. Not to mention that using the machines, people generally tend to overwash their clothing and that often not by a small degree. Experimenting with short-time programs a few times can bring surprising results. Dilling Eco line, Tekoforlife, Engel, Living Crafts, Mufflon and other brands are producing wool products suitable for frequent washing (underwear) that are ready for almost foolproof care.

Blends that combine various kinds of wool and other materials (cotton etc.) extend suitably variability in properties and use.


It breathes very well when dry.

It absorbs sweat well but the moisture is trapped in the fibre and isn’t passed through the fabric easily.

Wet cotton is heavy, isn’t warm in the cold and dries out slowly.

It is moderately warm to warm when dry (exceptionally low thermal conductivity) depending on the fabric construction and the cut. Fine long fibre cotton, brushed cotton or flannel with more loft are warmer, trap heat well and breathe. Moleskin cotton is famously hard-wearing, soft fabric that offers good protection (also against the cold). It is heavier and more suited for working etc. conditions outdoor rather than for a typical trek and high-exposure-to-the-elements outdoors.

Cotton is excellent material for everything except when you flood it with sweat during extreme activities as it holds the moisture and gets damp. If you expect your body to be overheating and sweating for longer look for cotton blends or materials that wick well. Cotton wrinkles and deforms rather easily. Compared to other natural fibres, it requires frequent washing, particularly the clothing worn close to body.

Blends with other natural or synthetic materials improve cotton in strength, durability and wicking properties and in case of blends with wool or silk they lead to very good general properties and more affordable fabrics.

Supima cotton -

(and other Gossypium barbadense HYB cultivars)

the strands can be spun with less twist into the yarns. Therefore they are of an airier structure and support capillary rise action better (as they are composed of extra long fibres - ELS).

Higher absorbency has already been proved during various manufacturing processes and it is almost certain that the wicking power of wet fabrics had increased some degree. This seems to be the case but meaningful difference to regular cottons is harder to spot and will probably take some time before a consensus is established by wear & use observations.

The ELS base of Supima (read pure Pima cotton) improves fabric properties also in areas where the regular upland cotton is good or quite good already.


Silk, including bourette fabrics and yarn, is a strong dense material of similar properties to wool. It doesn’t lock moisture and breathes well.

It’s great over a great range of temperatures and it’s warm when needed. Garments made of silk are tough, keep shape very well and are resistant to deformation. Silk clothing is good as a special purpose sportswear, dedicated outdoor or for a base layer under some rougher wools.

Blends such as with cotton are practical combinations, perhaps for tactile reasons more than anything else because it's hard to imagine the cotton improving the silk in any regard.


First generation types of viscose are quite similar to cotton in their properties but are less durable and therefore often part of blends. Viscose breathes well dry or wet and absorbs sweat even more which makes the material on its own less suitable choice when sweating is excessive or extreme (it is wicking better than cotton though). Regular occasional sweating is fine, and the sponge-like property of these materials is even useful for this. It gives a softer feel on the skin with which viscose more elastic fabrics make closer contact thanks to a greater fluidity of the fabrics, e.g. Tencel Standard (known for peach skin effect/feel).

Cellulose fibres usually are more delicate and also a bit more prone to wear compared to cotton which is more robust (and they let much more UV radiation through if that’s a concern). New, advanced, high modulus types such as Tencel LF and A 100 resist abrasion and pulling forces just as cottons if not better.

The main advantage of the fabrics made of a second-generation (and up) viscose over the cotton especially in outdoors and sports is that they breathe much better and the exchange of the air and vapour is substantially better. The sweat transport is superior both regarding the distribution through the garment and wicking power, they dry out faster, too, both as a garment and per area of the fabric.

Even the old viscose materials require less maintenance than cotton, so when that reflects in the care, it can compensate for their lower wear resistance. The bamboo and eucalyptus pulp worked by use of green, third-generation methods like Lyocel process seem particularly interesting for its lower tendency to accommodate bacteria as a suitable substrate. For their properties and soft feel, the bamboo and other viscose materials (Tencel) are also great for spending nights in a sleeping bag where other choices such as synthetics are worse options.

Great for blends (e.g. cotton and wool) depending on the exact handle, drape and properties required.


Inherently it doesn’t breathe well dry.

Most fabrics seem decent at temperature regulating and distribute quite naturally. It provides good layering for warmth as it holds the heat quite well. It doesn’t absorb water so it is lightweight when wet. It has good wicking properties which makes it good for controlling skin temperature during physical activities when you sweat a lot. It also dries out quickly.

Sophisticated design fabrics and looser cuts will improve the breathability.

It is good for low cost, low weight, low maintenance garments that are wicking the sweat well. Good for cold environments.

Not the best choice outside intensive activities (in sleeping bag, relaxing) for it breathes worse which can make you feel suffocated and stuffy (despite having 3 x higher thermal conductivity than wool).

Good for blends such as with viscose or cotton.

Polartec -

a fleece construction composed of lofted polyester fibres and the result is a warm, insulating fabric of the same properties as the polyester. Half or full zip garments are an option outdoor both as a durable outerwear and as a layering.

Polygiene -

I haven’t used this treatment for my own use but it gets reliable feedback as a highly effective technology that uses well-known properties of (recycled) silver to combat bacteria which is very useful for the synthetics.

The results could be as good as approaching the wool effectiveness and polyester fabrics that are made sufficiently air permeable and also durable (often not the easiest combination to achieve) can offer a long lasting garment of unique properties of the polyester (including the blends) that is mitigating the downsides of the synthetic garments. Look for partners at Polygiene site when searching this direction.

Biopolyester -

Very promising type of polyester is further developed for textile and clothing industry (and other industries such as packaging) that belongs to bio-plastic family of PLA type. Its production is based solely on biological sources (derived polylactid acid from the plant-based material).

Its properties are enhanced in several important areas, and character of the fibre is optimised for the creation of superior polyester/polyester blends fabrics such as in blends with wool and cotton (that also in outdoor use sense).

Polyamide (Nylon)

As with the other synthetic materials the air permeability will depend strictly on the weave, type and construction of the fabric. Its wicking power is greater than that of the polyester and that together with good body vapour control extends good ventilation for times when more sweat is generated.

The water absorption is low, fractionally higher than with other synthetics.

Fabrics made of polyamide are mostly superior to polyester. Generally less stuffy-feel fabric overnight than polyester (sleeping bag) has inherently higher thermal conductivity than other synthetics. Higher elasticity (about the same as wool), strength and better wicking property put it above the polyester in bacterial growth/odour control as well (one of the inherent shortcomings of the synthetic materials). It also is the more expensive material of the two. It obviously dries out very quickly.

I have been using polyamide specialist garments for many years in outdoors and in my experience, when it comes to synthetics, it is number one material for strength, durability (false economy saving money when going for cheaper material), feel and sweat control.

Especially suitable for activities in warmer and hot environments where you always sweat and face high humidity from the outside. Together with the polyester (and technical blends), it is in these conditions indispensable for creating lightweight, easily washable, fast-wicking garments (mid-layer worn as mid or base layer) with a natural tendency to dry out and stay dry. Washed in time without delay (that is, utilising its advantage) it can be a great companion to natural materials that you can need (underwear) as soon as the conditions are out of the specific window.

Almost never good for sleep where the natural materials serve better and never for enclosed spaces such as hiking boots (whatever the conditions) as a leading composition. You can be outdoors in anything for a week. It is the extremes, performance (from blisters to help with hygiene) and a prolonged use that make the distinction.

In cold conditions, the synthetics score high also as a more substantial mid-layer and outer layer compared to the regular sheep wool. This is when the weight is the most critical single factor and (or) high humidity is being experienced for an extended time. The wool will hold more moisture in the fibre, compared to the primary synthetic materials, and will make equivalent piece of clothing heavier.

Finally, in conditions where you know you won’t keep the rain away, and the clothing will simply be wet, the wool is a lifesaver as it will always keep you warm, although not terribly comfortable.

The synthetic fill also comes into its own in the cold environments, when the humidity is constant and high.

Recycled (and bluesign) materials are sometimes used for manufacturing but the need for combining them with biodegradable replacements grows (Dilling).

Supplex -

is a softer version of Nylon fibre (Tilley makes virtually indestructible hats of Supplex).

Pertex –

a combined weave high-performance fabric that is forming natural water resistant (and moisture wicking) membrane that allows escaping the vapour from inside out.


Acrylic garments breathe quite well when dry thanks to their loftier construction.

Acrylic also lacks inherently wicking properties (type of the construction can mitigate this) but it traps the heat well.

As it also doesn’t absorb water well it stays light when wet - it is lighter than the wool and especially cotton.

Low cost, practical material for a great range of outdoor clothing and as a substitute for wool although it’s not a match for fine wools for warmth and any wool for temperature control. Full zip tops are more practical for regulating the body temperature.

Good for blends with wool.


breathes very well. The fabrics tend to keep its own shape as the linen is relatively lightweight and stiffer overall allowing plenty of air to circulate between the body and the garment.

Bast fibre of linen is highly absorbent and releases moisture just as readily in which it surpasses the cotton easily. The resin content helps to shape the properties of the linen fabric further; it has better antibacterial properties and its wrinkles are particularly durable. That, together with lesser drape, gives the garments characteristic shape we are used to see with quality linen.

The linen fabric as such is very durable, wear and also dirt resistant. The fabric matures with use as it gains more elasticity and even silk-like lustre while retaining its superior strength. I once was using an old linen shirt after my grandfather particularly for physical work and loved it for its unique look, feel and properties.

It behaves as a natural insulator to heat (sun rays) though the body heat itself isn’t trapped nearly as easily. This also makes it known for its good use in hotter environments/conditions.

Being a plant fibre it’s not as versatile as the wool. It can be an excellent alternative though when a looser fit and more air circulation is preferred in hotter conditions as a heat reflecting and sweat well managing (at contact) clothing. T-shirts are appearing on the market slowly along with the classic shirt. Coarser weave fabrics are very good for tea/kitchen towel and similar sort of use, much better than the cotton. Some stiffer polyamide fabrics, like in some shirts, can imitate linen to some degree.


Hemp gives similar fabrics to linen with a distinctly natural feel, developing similarly characteristic look when worn (the cloth ‘lives’ - matures with time). It tends to be less lustrous, and reports suggest it’s even more durable than the linen both in a wet or dry state.

Its structure, build and behaviour are very similar in terms of water absorption, moisture release, how it distributes moisture and liquid, how it dries out as well as for the UPF. It seems to be more often part of blends with cotton than on its own compared to the linen.

Our experience is limited so far, mostly recent, but very positive with the cotton blends. Ideally, we want to get more things made of 100% hemp when given an opportunity. The clothing seems to be used more in the Americas and Asia than in Europe.


Down used as a fill is also classified by the grade depending on how fine it is. It has best isolating properties and thus generates most warmth.

It loses the property when wet unless it is treated to maintain its structure (just as in nature where birds take a great care of their feathers and treat them with oils).

It’s very compact for compression.

The synthetic fills used in jackets don’t reach the same compactness but are warmer when the clothing gets damp. Not as warm when dry, though.

Another filling and wadding alternative is Lavalan which is washable wool treated by using earth-friendly technology (no chlorine, chemicals, plastic). The method has minimum impact on the wool properties including insulation and vapour perspiration transmission. It should be an interesting material but I personally have no experience with it yet.

Another possible consideration for synthetic vs natural materials is the dust pollution at home. This is somewhat less relevant to outdoors. As we manipulate the clothing the released dust comes in contact with heating units of our homes and pollutes the air (as it’s heated to high temperatures or burnt). We also breathe in the dust which stays in our body for some time before the body gets rid of it. It stands to reason that natural materials are more acceptable for this type of contact, or indeed, for any kind (next to the skin). For the same reason, lightly coloured fabrics are preferable.


Is generally less suitable material for clothing for its physical properties overall. It however has useful properties for which it can be used in blends when carefully manufactured. It is lightweight and at the same time a good insulator. The polypropylene is also tough in swing. It passes this to the fabric of which it is a part. You don’t find often material that is lightweight, hydrophobic, a very good insulator, resistant to hinge forces and cheap. It doesn’t resist the UV radiation well so the construction of the fabric can reflect this or UV absorbents can be added to counterbalance this.

Thinsulate 3M

This system provides highly efficient insulation at very reasonable prices. It uses layered synthetic fabrics and polypropylene insulation in compositions that are very effective yet relatively pleasant to use. The fabrics made of classic synthetic materials mentioned above are composed of fine fibres which further improves the isolation performance. The clothing is strongly geared towards the insulation, is relatively lightweight, the water absorption is minimal. That signifies its use more as a tool at a specific time and condition.

On the other hand, it is a synthetic material along which goes its tactile quality or properties (some of which are subjective) although the fine fibre can mitigate this for a part, the permeability for vapour and air is low and it doesn’t regulate temperature in a way the wool does for example.

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